December 2019

Global Perspectives on Law, Policy, and Mobility Innovation

Co-sponsored by the University of South Carolina School of Law.

 February 7th, 2020

9:00 AM – 5:30 PM

Room 1225, Jeffries Hall, University of Michigan Law School 

The goal of the 2020 Law and Mobility conference is to bring together a diverse selection of international transportation experts from government, industry, and civil society to discuss how communities and nations across the globe are reacting to new mobility technologies like drones, automated vehicles, and micro-mobility platforms. Within the United States the discussion around new mobility technology has been focused on domestic developments, with some discussion of developments in nations and regions that have deep connections to the American transportation system – as dictated by geography (Canada) or economics (the EU, Japan, South Korea, and Japan, among others). This conference is intended to expand that discussion to a wider set of nations and regions, to gain new perspectives on both the promise and peril of these emerging technologies.

Global Perspectives on Law, Policy, and Mobility Innovation is presented by the University of Michigan Law School’s Law and Mobility Program, and co-sponsored by the University of South Carolina School of Law.

Expert Participants will include:

  • Silvia Stuchi Cruz – Founder, CorridaAmiga (Brazil)
  • Dr. Rohit Baluja – Chairman, Institute of Road Traffic Education (India)
  • He Shanshan – Partner, Anli Partners (China)
  • Luiz Otávio Maciel – Miranda Advisor, Traffic Department of State of Pará (Brazil)
  • Pramanand Gopaldu – Lead Engineer, Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit (Mauritius)
  • Phil Monture – (Six Nations of the Grand River)
  • Raymond Hess – Transportation Manager, City of Ann Arbor (US)
  • Ellen Partridge – Policy and Strategy Director at Shared-Use Mobility Center (US)
  • Daniel Arking – Counsel, Department of Law, City of Detroit (US)
  • Jeff P. Michael, EdD – Distinguished Scholar and Leon S. Robertson Faculty Development Chair in Injury Prevention, Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University (US)
  • Emily Frascaroli – Managing Counsel, Product Litigation Group, Ford Motor Company (US)
  • Jessica Robinson – President and Executive Director, Michigan Mobility Institute (US)

Further Information on Expert Participants is Available Here

Schedule of Events

Morning Sessions


(Available via livestream)

  • 9:00 am – 9:05 am
Welcome and Introduction

Profs. Daniel Crane and Bryant Walker Smith


  • 9:05 am – 10:15 am
Expert Participant Presentations 

Expert participants will make short presentations on their work and the transportation issues faced by their communities and nations.

Presenters:


  • 10:30 am – 12:00 pm
Rural and Inter-City Transportation

Emily Frascaroli, Moderator  

Expert participants will discuss the transportation challenges facing rural communities, the demands of moving people and goods across nations and regions as a whole, and how emerging transportation technologies can meet those challenges.

Each expert will briefly present their views on these issues, followed by open discussion with other speakers and questions from the audience.

Expert Participants:

Pramanand Gopaldu, Lead Engineer, Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit (Mauritius)

Luiz Otávio Maciel Miranda, Advisor, Traffic Department of State of Pará (Brazil)

Phil Monture, (Six Nations of the Grand River)

Lunch and Expert Participant Presentations

(Available via livestream)

  • 12:00 pm – 1:45 pm 

All guests will enjoy lunch while some of our expert participants make short presentations on their work and the transportation issues faced by their communities and nations.

Presenters: 

Afternoon Sessions

(Available via livestream)

  • 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm
Urban Transportation

Ellen Partridge, Moderator  

Expert participants will discuss the transportation challenges facing urban areas, and how emerging transportation technologies can meet those challenges. 

Each expert will briefly present their views on these issues, followed by open discussion with other speakers and questions from the audience.

Expert Participants:

Daniel Arking, Counsel, Department of Law, City of Detroit (US)

Silvia Stuchi Cruz, Founder, CorridaAmiga (Brazil)

Raymond Hess, Transportation Manager, City of Ann Arbor (US)


  • 3:30 pm – 5:00 pm
Transportation Regulation, Policy, and Planning 

Bryant Walker Smith, Moderator

Expert participants will discuss how governments and communities approach new transportation technology, and the relationship between law, policy, and planning in transportation systems. 

Each expert will briefly present their views on these issues, followed by open discussion with other speakers and questions from the audience.

Expert Participants:

Dr. Rohit Baluja, Chairman, Institute of Road Traffic Education (India)

Jeff P. Michael, EdD, Distinguished Scholar and Leon S. Robertson Faculty Development Chair in Injury Prevention, Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University (US)

Jessica Robinson, President and Executive Director, Michigan Mobility Institute (US)


  • 5:00 pm – 5:30 pm

Summary and Closing

Ian Williams, Moderator

Expert participants and attendees will close out the day by taking part in wide discussion of all of the day’s panels.

    

Cargo Bikes in NYC

These past few weeks millions of people
went online, added various items to their cart, and hit “submit order.” From
Thanksgiving until the end of December, the volume of packages hitting the road
will be substantial. With Black Friday, Cyber Monday, and holiday shopping all
taking place in a short time span, the resulting packages will cause delivery
trucks in heavily populated cities to disrupt road traffic more than ever.

New York City (NYC) has the highest population density
of any city in the United States with over 27,000 people per square mile. Not
only is NYC the most populated, it also has more packages delivered than
anywhere else in the country. There are nearly 1.5 million packages delivered
a day in NYC and during the holiday season that number climbs even higher. When
making deliveries, trucks park in bus lanes and bike lanes, double-park, cause
a significant number of cyclist accidents, and contribute to congestion.
Additionally, delivery trucks pollute the air by sitting in traffic and idling
its engines throughout the day.

Delivery companies and the Department of
Transportation (DOT) are recognizing the rate people are ordering online and
have begun to realize that large trucks may not be the most feasible option to
navigate the busy streets. Recently, the city approved a new program in which
cargo bikes operated by Amazon, UPS, and DHL will be allowed to make deliveries
for the next six months. The Commercial Cargo Bike Program consists of around
100 pedal-assisted, electronic cargo bikes that are ready to
replace some of the delivery trucks on the road.

“There’s no doubt the rise in deliveries has caused chaos on our streets–but there are plenty of thoughtful solutions out there to make our streets safer and more sustainable. I’m excited to see DOT exploring this new technology which will help bring NYC’s freight and delivery systems into the 21st Century. I look forward to seeing these cargo bikes on the road and working with DOT in the near future to take a comprehensive look at how we manage these deliveries.”

City Council Speaker Corey Johnson

The goal of the program is to monitor and
collect data on how the cargo bikes handle the streets by looking at the cargo
bike’s speed, size, parking, use of bike lanes, and effect on overall traffic
in Manhattan. The data will be assessed by the DOT to determine whether a more
permanent implementation of cargo bikes is appropriate for NYC. In the
meantime, cargo bikes are permitted to travel on the street and in bike lanes
at a maximum speed of 12mph as well as park in existing commercial loading
areas without paying the meters. According to DHL, their cargo bikes can hold 300 pounds, which depending
on the size of the packages, could be around 100 to 150 shipments per day. For
each cargo bike put on the road, there is meant to be one delivery truck taken
off.

Other
large cities such as Paris, London, Dublin, and Seattle, have found success in
using cargo bikes. UPS has cargo bikes in over 30 cities all over the world. In NYC, however, Amazon
is at the forefront of the cargo bike movement. Amazon’s cargo bikes comprise
90 of the initial 100 bikes deployed for the program and they hope to add more
soon. Amazon began putting their cargo bikes on the streets before the
Commercial Cargo Bike Program was officially approved. Their cargo bikes were
first put to use ten months ago for Prime Now grocery deliveries.

The convenience, flexibility, and
efficiency of cargo bikes make them just one of many possible solutions for
package delivery in densely populated cities. Now that cargo bikes have the
support of NYC and the DOT, residents might begin to see some much needed
relief to the vehicle congestion caused by too many trucks on the road.

Over the last few years, emerging mobility technologies from CAVs to e-scooters have become the targets of malicious hackers. CAVs, for example, are complicated machines with many different components, which opens up many avenues for attack. Hackers can reprogram key fobs and keyless ignition systems. Fleet management software used worldwide can be used to kill vehicle engines. CAV systems can be confused with things as simple a sticker on a stop sign. Even the diagnostic systems within a vehicle, which are required to be accessible, can be weaponized against a vehicle by way of a $10 piece of tech.

For mobility-as-a-service (“MaaS”) companies, the security of their networks and user accounts is also at threat. In 2015 a number of Uber accounts were found for sale on the “dark web,” and this year a similar market for Lime scooter accounts popped up. Hacking is not even required in some cases. Car2Go paused service in Chicago after 100 vehicles were stolen by people exploiting the company’s app (the company is now ending service in the city, though they say it’s for business reasons).

The wireless systems used for vehicle connectivity are also a target. On faction in the current battle over radio spectrum is pushing cellular technology, especially 5G tech as the future of vehicle-to-vehicle communication. While 5G is more secure than older wireless networks, it is not widespread in the U.S., leaving vulnerabilities. As some companies push for “over-the-air” updates, where vehicle software is wirelessly updated, unsecure wireless networks could lead to serious vehicle safety issues.

So what can be done to deal with these cybersecurity threats? For a start, there are standard-setting discussions underway, and there have been proposals for the government to step up cybersecurity regulation for vehicles. A California bill on the security of the “internet-of-things” could also influence vehicle security. Auto suppliers are putting cybersecurity into their development process. Government researchers, like those Argonne National Labs outside Chicago, are looking for vulnerabilities up and down the supply chain, including threats involving public car chargers. Given the ever-changing nature of cybersecurity threats, the real solution is “all of the above.” Laws and regulations can spark efforts, but they’ll likely never be able to keep up with evolving threats, meaning companies and researchers will always have to be watchful.

P.S. – Here is a good example of how cybersecurity threats are always changing. In 2018, security researchers were able to hack into a smartphone’s microphone and use it to steal user’s passwords, using the acoustic signature of the password. In other words, they could figure out your password by listening to you type it in.

Last month FCC Chairman Ajit Pai announced a plan to allow unlicensed use of a 45-megahertz (MHz) chunk of the mid-band spectrum. How is this even close to related to mobility or transportation? In 1999, the FCC dedicated 75 MHz of the 5.9GHz band to vehicle-related communications and transportation safety, specifically to dedicated short-range communications (DSRC). Guess where that 45MHz portion is right now; you only get one try.

That’s right. Aiming for a 40-60 split in favor of unlicensed use, the FCC is cutting into the dedicated DSRC MHz to make room for what Chairman Pai likened to a “teenage phenom”. This reduction of the so-called “safety band” has garnered a healthy mix of responses, with the two opposing ends of the spectrum being vigorous support and scathing disbelief. For example:

“There’s always going to be something new just around the corner. If we’re going to be afraid to take advantage of the technology that’s available today to save lives, then we’re not doing our jobs.”

Carlos Braceras, Executive Director of Utah Department of Transportation

“The FCC is prepared to trade safer roads for more connectivity by giving away much of the 5.9GHz safety spectrum, and it proposes to make such an inexplicable decision in the absence of data. The Commission is prepared to put not just drivers but pedestrians and other vulnerable users, particularly first responders and those in work zones, at grave risk, and for what?”

Shailen Bhatt, President and CEO of ITS America

Let’s take a quick step back. What is actually is the DSRC spectrum? The DSRC spectrum addresses transportation safety via on-board and roadside wireless safety systems allowing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. Essentially, it wants cars to talk to other cars and to traffic lights. However, the FCC has its sights set on a much larger goal: vehicle-to-everything communications (V2X).

Specifically, the plan proposes going beyond the practice of using short-wave technology, such as radios, in favor of prioritizing V2X using cellular technology (C-V2X), which is incompatible with DSRC.

“If it were a medicine, V2X might be considered a miracle drug capable of slowing down a public-health epidemic of U.S. traffic fatalities that last year numbered more than 36,000.”

Jeff Plungis, ConsumerReports.org

So you might assume that C-V2X tech would be getting a shot in the arm in the form of a 45MHz dedication. However, you’d be wrong. Chairman Pai’s remarks in November announced that the lower 45MHz are for unlicensed use. In particular, this would work toward addressing the ever-increasing demand for WiFi bandwidth. It was also proposed that the remaining 30MHz of the spectrum be dedicated to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), with 20MHz to C-V2X and the remaining 10MHz potentially left to DSRC. Faster internet and lower chances of being hit by a car while crossing the road? It seems like finally being able to have our cake and eat it, too.

“So moving forward, let’s resist the notion that we have to choose between automotive safety and Wi-Fi. My proposal would do far more for both automotive safety and Wi-Fi than the status quo.”

Ajit Pai, FCC Chairman

But, of course, there are some drawbacks. Critics have pointed to a number of issues that they claim will come from splitting the safety band. For one, what about DSCR? Cities and municipalities may be sent back to square one in terms of smart transportation infrastructure developments and advancements is they focused their efforts on DSRC systems. Additionally, some auto-manufacturers may prefer C-V2X, but a number have already been installing DSCR systems, a potentially unworkable endeavor should this plan be put into action. The proposed plan doesn’t go as far as to kill DSCR, but some argue that it may as well.

The FCC’s concerns and proposed answers are admirable, but I can’t help but wonder how much of it is simply shiny paint covering tired wallpaper. For one, is the FCC’s true motivation actually addressing the lack of movement within the safety band for V2V, V2I, and V2X? Or, is it convenient? Chairman Pai indicated that this proposal came into being when the FCC was looking for contiguous swathes of the spectrum that it could open up for different types of unlicensed operations. While there is no doubt that jump starting transportation-related communications is important, the FCC’s dedication to transportation safety comes across as secondary.

I clearly don’t have answers, but these questions and others will hopefully be addressed as the FCC concludes the notice and comment period for the proposal and the next steps are taken.

As audiences worldwide await the release of Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker, a few recent developments in transportation technology are taking cues (directly or indirectly) from the technology of a galaxy far, far away.

Last week, the opening ceremony of a new ride at Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge, the Star Wars themed land at Walt Disney World, included actual flying X-Wing starfighters, built from Boeing-made drones. There are two important things to take from this development: (1) Boeing is apparently now a supplier for General Leia Organa’s Resistance, and; (2) Boeing is confident enough in their “Cargo Air Vehicle” drone to allow a highly-publicized public display. The all-electric Cargo Air Vehicle flew for the first time earlier this year, and is designed to carry up to 500 lbs. of cargo at a time. I’ve written about aerial delivery drones before, in October and September, but this new Boeing vehicle has a much higher carrying capacity than the smaller drones those articles focused on. Of course, a highly controlled environment like a major theme park is perhaps not as challenging an environment as the vehicles would face elsewhere, the visibility of this deployment raises interesting questions about Boeing’s future plans for the testing and deployment of the vehicles.

Another emerging technology that is attempting to recreate the Star Wars universe here on Earth is flying taxis. A number of prototype flying taxis have been revealed over the past few years, though none have the smooth lines of those seen in Star Wars, or the retro-styling of another sci-fi mainstay, the Jetson’s car. In June, Uber showed off the design of their proposed air taxi, an electric vehicle they will be testing in LA and Dallas in 2020. Industry boosters see a future with many such vehicles crisscrossing major metro areas (hmmm…where have I seen that before…). However, there are a number of challenges:

  • How do you make them cost-effective? Aircraft are expensive, and the proposed air taxis are no different. So how do you make them efficient enough to justify their cost? Will making them electric do the trick, or will the cost of batteries and other equipment sink the concept?
  • What is the economy of scale for this type of transportation? Right now, Uber offers helicopter flights from Manhattan to JFK Airport for $200-225 a person. If an air taxi ride has similar costs, how many people will really take advantage of them?
  • What infrastructure will they need? Where are they going to land? Uber has mocked-up glossy “skyport” designs, which they say will combine street-level mobility with their aerial offerings, but how many of these will be necessary if more than one company operates in a given metro area? Will skyports proliferate? In some cities, like London, there is already a scramble for roof space to transform into landing pads for air taxis and drones.
  • How do we regulate these vehicles? Between the aerial taxis and delivery drones, the skies would seem to be primed for traffic jams. Does the FAA retain full control over everything flying, or will states and even municipalities have to step in to help regulate a proliferation of flying vehicles?

Just like connected and automate vehicles, air taxes mix promising new technology with a sci-fi edge. It remains to be seen if air taxis will actually prove cost-effective enough to function for anyone other than the wealthy, but if Disney World’s use of drone X-Wings is any indication, a new hope for aerial vehicles may be just around the corner.

P.S. – Those who are skeptical of self-driving vehicles may have found a new patron saint in The Mandalorian, who turns down a droid-piloted speeder in favor of one driven by a person (also, apparently Uber service in the Outer Rim involves flutes?). To be fair, Mando later has some issues with his adorable companion playing with the controls of his ship, proving that humanoid controlled vehicles are still prone to problems (Han could have told him that).

When Elon Musk unveiled the Cybertruck late last month, it sent shockwaves throughout the electric vehicle world, the stock market, and the internet. The sleek bodied, sharp-edged vehicle is reminiscent of the classic Back to the Future DeLorean. It has already been pre-ordered by over 200K customers, according to a tweet by Elon Musk. (It is important to note that a pre-order involves only a $100 deposit, which is refundable). Despite the large volume of pre-orders, Tesla’s stock price dropped by 5% in the days following the announcement — decreasing Musk’s net worth by over $750 million due to his significant holdings in Tesla. Notwithstanding the market reaction to the unveiling, the Cybertruck will likely be a success in the pick-up truck consumer market.

One of the entertainment factors of the reveal was the on-stage demonstration that the vehicle is built for abuse. Unlike other Tesla vehicles that are made of stamped alumni or steel, the Cybertruck is built using 30X cold-rolled steel. The body of the vehicle took a blow from a sledgehammer without leaving a scratch. However, one window did unexpectedly shatter when a steel ball was thrown into it. The truck is meant to withstand anything a user can throw at it, which will likely appeal to current pick-up truck owners who use their trucks for towing, camping, off-roading, or any other number of activities.

The Cybertruck appears to be slightly larger than the Ford F150 (the best-selling vehicle for over three decades), and was shown capable of beating the Ford F150 in a Tug of War. Tesla’s press release indicated that there are three versions of the truck that will ultimately be available.

Cybertruck is designed to have the utility of a truck and the performance of a sports car. The vehicle is built to be durable, versatile and capable, with exceptional performance both on-road and off-road. Cybertruck will come in three variants: Single Motor Rear-Wheel Drive, Dual Motor All-Wheel Drive, and Tri Motor All-Wheel Drive.

Base Model

  • Price:               $39,000
  • Range:             250 miles
  • Tow Rating:    7,500 lbs
  • 0-60 mph:        6.5 seconds

Dual Motor

  • Price:               $49,000
  • Range:             300 miles
  • Tow Rating:    10,000 lbs
  • 0-60 mph:        4.5 seconds

Tri-Motor*

  • Price:               $69,900
  • Range:             500 miles
  • Tow Rating:    14,000 lbs
  • 0-60 mph:        <3 seconds
    * Tri-Motor Production won’t begin until 2022

The Truck Market

It makes perfect sense that Tesla has finally entered the pick-up truck arena. Trucks account for roughly 15 percent of U.S. vehicle sales each year, a slice of the pie that has been growing since 2009. Americans buy nearly a million Ford F150’s every year. Not only is there market demand, but pick-up trucks are the perfect build for an electric vehicle; they are large and typically more expensive than sedans, and can better carry the large and (currently) costly batteries. 

Towing will also be easier with an electric truck, given the toque an electric vehicle can exert. Torque generally describes how quickly a vehicle will accelerate and its ability to pull a load. In an electric vehicle, high torque is available at low speeds and is relatively constant over a wide range of speeds. High torque enables an EV to move faster from a dead stop. This phenomenon can be described as “instant torque.”

However, perhaps consistent with the incredible increase in truck ownership over the past decade, truck owners frequently use their trucks much like other car owners: for commuting to work. So perhaps increased towing ability is not quite the selling point for Tesla.

A 500-mile range is incredibly impressive, considering many EVs have a range right at or below 300 miles per charge, with many below 200 miles. However, it is not likely to be seen as an improvement for truck drivers, who pleasure drive more than twice as often as other vehicle owners. Even at the top of the line, a 500-mile range is lower than an F150, which can get nearly 700 miles per tank (assuming 19 mpg and a 36-gallon tank).

If the Cybertruck can take control of a sizable segment of the truck market and begin chipping away at the market share of their low-fuel economy competitors, Tesla may begin making tangible progress towards decreasing domestic oil consumption and quicken the transition to an electrified transportation sector.

Ultimately, the sleek new design and popular appeal of the Tesla brand will likely make the Cybertruck a successful product. But it is doubtful that many purchasers will utilize the benefits an electric truck has over a traditional pick-up. They will instead likely use the vehicle as they would any other car, or as a status symbol. There are plenty of SUV and light-duty truck owners who will be glad to switch to an environmentally friendly alternative that still allows them to ride high above traffic. Others will be more than happy to end their reliance on highly-fluctuating fuel prices.

Earlier this month, Connecticut’s Governor Ned Lamont announced and released the details of his plan to upgrade and “transform” the state’s transportation system. The plan, Connecticut 2030 (CT2030), allocates $21 billion primarily to improving Connecticut’s highways, airports, mass transit, and ports and is pitched as “what Connecticut families and employers deserve.” While that is a wonderful goal, as usual, I have questions. However, I want to go over the basics of CT2030 before getting into those questions.

“CT2030 will result in nothing short of a transformation of the economy and quality of life in Connecticut. When residents are able to travel to and from at drastically quicker rates, families can thrive, employees are more productive, and businesses are able to grow and provide more opportunities.”

Impact of CT2030

Overall, the main point of CT2030 seems to be enabling people and business to move more quickly and more efficiently. Gov. Lamont aims to achieve CT2030’s goals by addressing four main focus areas mentioned above: highways, airports, mass transit, and ports.

Highways. The main thrust of CT2030’s highway plans appear to center significantly on I-84, I-91, and I-95. This makes sense, seeing as to it that multiple spots along each of these highways rank within the top 100 worst traffic bottlenecks in the United States. These three highways will be the focus of projects such as lane additions, exit enhancements, bridge improvements, and “user fee” installations (i.e. tolls).

Mass Transit. This portion of CT2030 focuses on public transportation in the forms of railways and buses. Again, the plans here are “all about less time commuting and more time with your family.” Railways would look forward to projects for straightening and upgrading tracks, replacing aging bridges, installing new signaling systems, and adding new cars and locomotives. Buses, in a much smaller endeavor, would receive upgrades providing consistency for users across the state’s bus system. These upgrades include fitting all bus stops with shelters for protection against bad weather and signs with information on operating routes, as well as providing real-time information updates via text message or phone app.

Airports. This seems to be one of the most underdeveloped aspects of CT2030. The two enhancements to Connecticut’s aviation sector are (1) connecting the Bradley International Airport to surrounding areas via direct railway lines, and (2) the development of a “fully functioning regional airport in South-Central CT.”

Ports. Connecticut’s four major ports and the associated maritime industry annually generate an estimated $11.2 billion. The projects for these ports are unique to each location. They include dredging to allow for larger ships and freighters to pass through more frequently and the implementation of a high-speed ferry system to provide services for commuters as well as tourists.

Now for some questions:

What about induced demand? Congestion can’t always be solved by simply adding more lanes, no matter how logical that solution would seem. And it does make sense: remove the congestion by removing the bottleneck. However, this reasonable answer runs full speed into the issue of induced demand. The phenomenon of induced demand can be stated simply: “When you provide more of something, or provide it for a cheaper price, people are more likely to use it.” This means that increasing capacity does little to relieve busy roadways when traffic acts as a “gas” and the “volume expands to fill the capacity.”

“Widening a highway is no more a solution to traffic than buying bigger pants is a solution to overeating.”

David Andrew, Hartford Courant

While some experts argue that induced capacity doesn’t cause as much strife as people claim, the potential is still something that should be taken into account. If CT2030 centers on reducing highway commute time through widening projects, there needs to be at least some discussion addressing the possible negative impacts, such as an increase in urban sprawl, carbon emissions, and more.

What about pedestrian infrastructure? While CT2030 allocates approximately $21 billion to its various projects, only an estimated $52 million would be dedicated to the Community Connectivity Program (CCP), a “grant program for municipalities to make improvements to sidewalks” that “helps local communities make necessary improvements for pedestrians.” If my math is even close to correct – honestly, no promises – this amounts to less than half of a percent.

Admittedly, I’m using the term “pedestrian infrastructure” broadly to include traffic calming and bicycle infrastructure in addition to traditional pedestrian infrastructure while CT2030 narrows the scope of CCP down to sidewalk projects. However, this doesn’t defeat the question of why so little focus is dedicated to pedestrian infrastructure.

There are plenty of unanswered questions and unaddressed concerns still surrounding CT2030. One major question mark is whether it will actually be implemented. This is thanks to Gov. Lamont and state legislators starring in leading roles opposite one another in a multi-season drama. With this in mind, it will be interesting to see how and if Connecticut moves forward with CT2030 or any rival transportation plans.

Regardless of the mixed reactions to Tesla’s new Cybertruck, the electric vehicle revolution is here. Some analysts have predicted that within twenty years, half of new vehicles sold will be electric. For the future of the planet, we may need them to be. One core tenet of climate change mitigation is fairly simple in concept, even if difficult in practice: electrify everything. Quickly phasing out polluting technologies—such as the internal combustion engine—and replacing them with electric batteries that are charged by renewable energy sources is our best shot to reduce emissions fast enough to limit some of the worst effects of climate change.

One thing standing in the way of our electrified future is—or as will be discussed below, may be—the lack of charging infrastructure. Electric vehicles today travel about 200 miles per charge. This is a shorter distance than most gasoline-fueled cars. And gasoline-powered cars need a five minute fill-up after traveling a few hundred miles, which is much less onerous than the hour or two that it would take to restore the 200 mile range on your electric vehicle even with the best available chargers.

But how much of a problem is the lack of infrastructure, really? The average driver only rarely takes road trips of several hundred miles. Indeed, the average car only drives forty miles per day. Level 2 EVSE charging infrastructure is relatively inexpensive to install in most homes, and powerful enough to charge a vehicle overnight. Given how cheap it already is to charge a vehicle at home, it’s no surprise that most existing public charging stations are rarely used.

This ease of charging at home is likely to be a key long-term difference in infrastructure needs between the incoming era of electric vehicles and the past era of gas-powered vehicles. It would be implausible to install a gas pump in your home garage, making publicly available filling stations placed throughout cities and towns a necessity. When it comes to electric vehicles however, far fewer stations should be needed on the surface streets because the vast majority of people driving on them will be able to get more than enough charge by simply plugging into a wall outlet each day.

Of course, EV charging infrastructure will still need to be built out in order to maximize the uptake and utility of the next generation of cars. While the vast majority of people drive no more than a few dozen miles on a daily basis, most will also expect to take the occasional long road trip during the useful life of their car. Even as modern EVs push towards a 300 mile battery range, having to stop for an hour or more to recharge every few hours will continue to be seen as impractical.

This means there will continue to be a need for superfast chargers. The good news is, speedy chargers are already on the horizon. Late last year, Porsche and BMW unveiled a prototype charging station that will supply roughly sixty miles of battery life in just three minutes, about the length of time it takes to fill up a gas tank today. Venture capital investments in EV charging infrastructure totaled $1.7 billion from 2010 through the first quarter of 2019, and the total amount rose every year from 2015 through 2018.

Such investment, and the continued technological improvement it brings, will be necessary for the EV takeover of the vehicle market to reach its full potential. But thanks to increasing battery ranges and the ease of charging at home, the need for buildout with day-to-day use in mind may not be so great as previously thought.